Strategy: Increasing Opportunities to Respond
- Break complex problems down into smaller chunks, providing opportunities for students to answer for each chunk of the problem.
- Use a deck of note cards or flash cards with drill-and-practice questions. Intersperse individual student responses with group choral responses.
- Have each student use a small whiteboard to quickly write down answers to OTRs, holding it up to show the answer.
- Have each student hold up two-sided cards with yes/no, true/false, agree/disagree with an answer to an OTR. Students could also use thumbs up or thumbs down to agree or disagree with an answer.
- Provide opportunities for students to use simple movements, whether it be hand gestures or moving to a specified space in the classroom to share their responses.
- Mix brief, fast-paced teacher-directed review of previous material into every lesson, asking both individual and group responses.
- Ask a question, allow think time, and then call on students without having them raise their hands.
- If a student does not know the answer, allow some think time, then allow the student to “phone a friend” to help with the answer. Return to that student in a few minutes with the same question, giving the student an opportunity to respond correctly.
- Ask an OTR and then draw a stick with a student’s name out of a jar. Once a student answers correctly, remove their stick from the jar until everyone gets a chance (see below).
|If the student response to the question is:||The correct teacher response is to:|
|Correct, quick, and firm||Maintain the momentum of the lesson. Give a quick, “Right,” and present the next question.|
|Correct, but hesitant||Praise the student for the correct response, and then review the reasons for the correct answer or the steps associated with finding the right answer.|
|Incorrect, but a careless error||Give a quick, simple correction and allow the student to provide the correct answer. The feedback should make it clear what the correct answer should be. The feedback does not need to include the reasons why the information is correct.|
|Incorrect, due to lack of knowledge of facts or process||Provide the student with prompts to lead them to the correct answer. Use the correction procedure for academic errors.|
- Notice how she moves around the classroom as she asks questions of individual students. Also notice how she rotates to different tables when selecting students to respond.
- She intersperses praise and describes what the students are doing well throughout.
- She also asks the students to read and respond together.
- She provides 14 OTRs in just over one minute. Wow!
- What did you like about how the teacher included so many students and asked so many academic questions?
- Why do you think the students were so engaged?
- How might you incorporate some of what you saw and liked about from this video into your classroom practice?
- This lesson demonstrates using white boards during math story problems.
- Notice how the teacher uses a fast pace and lets the students know when they have completed the answer correctly.
- Notice how the teacher includes the students in the story as well by asking them how many of them eat chocolate. While not all of the students say they eat chocolate, they can all relate to the simple concept of sharing a treat with friends.
- Notice that the teacher includes characters that are familiar to her students within the math story problem.
- What did you like about how this teacher provided academic questions and gave students feedback?
- How did she make fairly complicated math problems fun and interactive?
- How might you incorporate some of what you saw and liked about how she explained the lesson in your classroom?
- This is an example of a teacher using “yes knocks” for students to respond to an academic question.
- How might you use this type of OTR in your classroom?
- What would you do if students were not responding correctly?
- What are other ways that you could incorporate the same concept but with other methods for responding?
- This teacher provides an opportunity to respond by letting all students answer the question and show her on their chest.
- Notice how quickly the students respond, providing the teacher with quick feedback on whether everyone understands.
- Notice that students do not have to leave their seats in order to respond, but they are still provided with an opportunity for some movement.
- What do you like about this way of having students answer?
- What other ways could you provide movement that would still engage your students and provide you with the chance to quickly assess their level of understanding and concept attainment?
References to Other Relevant Resources:
Reinke, W., Herman, K., & Sprick, R. (2011). Motivational interviewing for effective classroom management: The classroom check-up. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Sprick, R. (2009). CHAMPS: A proactive and positive approach to classroom management. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.
Haydon, T., MacSuga-Gage, A. S., Simonsen, B., & Hawkins, R. (2012). Opportunities to Respond: A Key Component of Effective Instruction. Beyond Behavior, 22(1), 23-31.